• Horizon Lab 1对1学术研究

    名校讲师指导,个性化授课

  • 研究课题

     

    本期课程有以下研究方向供参考。在你的研究论文中,你须选择一个议题,阐述、捍卫你的立场。如果学生对其他专业方向的课题感兴趣,也可以联系Horizon说明你的想法,Horizon会为你定制相应的研究课程。如果学生驳斥某论点(比如,批判国际货币基金组织,或论证伊朗拥核是种威胁),学生须列举一个或多个解决对策。

     

  • 机器学习的应用

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    计算机科学和预测分析可以应用于很多方面。从预测购买的股票的价格、航班延误的可能性,到预测你最喜欢的运动队下一场比赛的表现,甚至预测最高法院的审判结果,计算机科学都可以提供帮助,预测我们周围的世界。本课程将研究一些有趣的计算机科学应用,这些应用可以促进实现社会目标,提高经济效率,帮助我们更好地了解周围的世界。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. Applications of deep learning and reinforcement learning to train an autonomous agent to solve video game dynamics.

    利用深度学习和强化学习以训练自主代理,解决视频游戏的动力学问题

     

    2. Implementations of unsupervised learning to identify structure in social media data, for instance the structure of a group of followers of a popular Twitter account.

    利用无监督学习识别社交媒体数据中的结构,例如一个受欢迎的Twitter帐户的关注者结构。

     

    3. Developing convolutional neural networks to learn to scan images, with applications in image recognition and self-driving vehicles.

    开发卷积神经网络以学习扫描图像,并将其应用于图像识别和自动驾驶。

     

    4. Applications of machine learning to predict socially important and economically useful outcomes such as:

    机器学习在预测社会及经济重要问题的应用,例如:

     

    (1) The probability of flight delays

    航班延误的可能性

     

    (2) Stock market prices and fluctuations

    股市价格及波动

     

    (3) Studying and predicting real estate prices

    研究及预测房地产价格

     

    (4) Predicting scores and performance of sports teams

    预测体育运动队伍的成绩及表现

     

    (5) Incarceration, recidivism, and criminal justice outcomes

    监禁、惯犯,和刑事司法的影响

  • 机器学习与生物技术

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    当今时代,人类掌握着前所未有的关于疾病及其遗传信息的大数据。人工智能新时代下,“机器学习”与“数据科学”两个新兴领域大大地帮助了科研人员识别人体基因与疾病之间的联系。本课程将带领学生探索数据分析和机器学习的重要基础知识,并将其应用于对基因与心血管疾病、自闭症、心脏病、过敏或自身免疫性疾病之间的联系的研究性学习。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. Applications of predictive machine learning models to learn more about the human genome and understand mechanisms of cardiovascular disease, autism, heart disease, allergies or autoimmune disease.

    “机器学习”下的建模分析来认识人体“基因组”,从而深度探索心血管疾病、自闭症、心脏病、过敏或自身免疫性疾病。

     

    2. Unsupervised machine learning to study the genetics of the blood system.

    通过“机器无监督学习”技术认识血液系统的遗传组织。

     

    3. Predicting epigenetic modifications with deep learning to help understand biology of disease.

    过“深度学习”算法预测基因的表观遗传转录,从生物学的角度理解疾病的奥秘。

     

    4. Using deep learning to predict alternative splicing - a mechanism for RNA expression.

    用“深度学习”算法预测选择性剪接的基因序列的表现形式。

     

    5. Utilizing predictive machine learning models to learn more about cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and heart disease.

    利用预测机器学习模型学习更多关于心血管疾病的知识,如中风和心脏病。

     

    6. Utilizing predictive machine learning models to learn more about cancer prognosis and diagnosis.

    利用预测机器学习模型了解更多关于癌症的预后和诊断。

     

    7. Applications of machine learning in modeling the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and Ebola.

    机器学习模拟COVID-19和埃博拉等传染病传播中的应用。

     

    8. Applications of machine learning training a 'convolutional neural network' to predict skin lesions which are either benign or indicative of skin cancer.

    机器学习训练“卷积神经网络”的应用,以预测皮肤良性或指示性皮肤癌的病变。

     

    9. Is the drug industry going bust? A review of the scientific literature and economic data.

    关于药品行业盈利分析的科学文献和经济数据的探究。

     

    10. A review of supervised and unsupervised Machine Learning models.

    对“监督式机器学习”和“无监督式机器学习”模型的探究。

     

    11. A review into the role of data analysis in drug discovery.

    深度探究数据分析在制药领域的意义。

  • 基因编辑与CRISPR技术

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    生命是如何起源的?人类生命的基础是什么?科学家如何学会操纵我们的遗传密码?什么是CRISPR?它是如何被发现的?又是如何迅速改变我们理解和操作生物学能力的?CRISPR如何被用来控制基因表达和人类发展?如何将CRISPR系统应用于人类疾病检测和治疗?我们是如何找到具有新扩展功能的CRISPR系统的?

     

    在本课程中你将跟随三位导师,针对以下方向展开研究:

    注:Erika DeBenedictis主讲的主题被标记为‘Erika’;Alim Ladha主讲的主题被标记为‘Alim’;Zeynep Ozturk主讲的主题被标记为‘Zeynep’;Erin Berlew主讲的主题被标记为‘Erin’;Nadia Nasreddin主讲的主题被标记为‘Nadia’。

     

    1. How do CRISPR systems work on the molecular level? What was their original purpose? How did they evolve? [Erika, Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    CRISPR系统是如何在分子水平上工作的?它们最初的目的是什么?它们是如何进化的?

     

    2. Why are CRISPR systems useful for modern genome engineering? How do they compare to other techniques such as zinc fingers? [Erika, Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    为什么CRISPR系统对现代基因组工程起作用?它们与锌指等其他技术相比如何?

     

    3. CRISPR-based techniques rely on protein such as Cas12 or Cas9. Are some of the properties of these proteins undesirable? How might we engineer these proteins to work better? [Erika, Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    基于CRISPR的技术依赖于蛋白质,如Cas12或Cas9。 这些蛋白质的某些特性是否并不为人类所用? 我们如何改造这些蛋白质使其发挥更好的作用?

     

    4. On a molecular level, what components in living organisms are used to implement the specific genetic code that exists? How can we modify these components to create new genetic codes? What benefits would different genetic codes have for engineering purposes? [Erika, Alim, Erin]

    在分子水平上,生物体中哪些成分被用来实现特定的遗传密码?我们如何修改这些成分来产生新的遗传密码?不同的基因编码对工程有什么好处?

     

    5. What are recent developments in the field of CRISPR, such as CRISPR-guided base editors and prime editing?[Erika, Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    在CRISPR领域有哪些最新的发展,例如CRISPR导向的基础编辑器和主要编辑?

     

    6. How can CRISPR systems be used to modify the genomes of entire wild populations using ‘gene drive’ constructs? What are possible applications of gene drives? What are the technical challenges to implementing gene drives safely? What are the ethical implications of using gene drives? [Erika, Alim, Zeynep]

    CRISPR系统如何使用“基因驱动”构建体改善整个野生种群的基因组?基因驱动可能有哪些应用?安全实施基因驱动技术面临哪些技术挑战?使用基因驱动的伦理意义是什么?

     

    7. Large-scale engineering projects require project management strategies. In biological engineering, what are good strategies for assessing the quality and feasibility of an idea? How should one go about rapidly de-risking and implementing a new engineering approach? [Erika, Alim, Erin]

    大型工程项目需要项目管理策略。在生物工程中,有什么好的策略来评估一个想法的质量和可行性?人们应该如何迅速降低风险并实施一种新的工程方法?

     

    8. When our engineering goals require biomolecules with functions not found in nature, we can attempt to create these new components with rational or computational design approaches, with directed evolution, or both. How do these protein engineering techniques work? How do we assess which approach is likely to be successful in a particular situation?[Erika, Alim, Erin]

    当我们的工程目标需要具有新功能的生物分子时,我们可以尝试用理性或计算的设计方法实现定向进化,或两者兼而有之来创造这些新成分。这些蛋白质工程技术是如何工作的?我们如何评估在特定情况下哪种方法可能成功?

     

    9. How did life originate? How did the divide between genetic material (DNA) and functional biomolecules (proteins) come to exist? How did the genetic code come to exist? [Erika, Alim, Erin]

    生命是如何起源的?遗传物质(DNA)和功能生物分子(蛋白质)是如何区分的?遗传密码是如何产生的?

     

    10. Why is the universally conserved genetic code structured the way it is? In particular, why does it use three-base codons, why are the codons assigned to specific amino acids, why do some amino acids have more codons, and why were the specific 20 amino acids chosen? [Erika, Alim, Erin]

    为什么普遍存有的遗传密码构成是这样的?尤其是为什么它使用三碱基密码子?为什么密码子被分配给特定的氨基酸?为什么某些氨基酸有更多的密码子?为什么是这特定的20种氨基酸?

     

    11. What can directed evolution experiments teach us about how evolution works? Conversely, can evolution research of organisms in the wild guide best practices for directed evolution experiments in the laboratory? [Erika, Erin]

    定向进化实验可以教给我们什么有关进化的原理?相反,在野外对生物体的进化研究能否指导实验室进行定向进化实验的最佳实践?

     

    12. If we want to add a new amino acid to the genetic code, or rearrange which codon encodes which amino acid, what engineering approaches are available to us? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches? [Erika, Erin]

    如果我们想在遗传密码中添加一个新的氨基酸,或者重新排列哪个密码子编码哪个氨基酸,我们有什么工程方法?这些不同方法的优缺点是什么?

     

    13. What inspiration can we take from computer science that may help us engineer biological systems? Do concepts like logic gates and abstraction exist in biology, and if not, how do we implement them? [Erika]

    我们能从计算机科学中获得什么来帮助我们设计生物系统?像逻辑门和抽象这样的概念在生物学中存在吗?如果不存在,我们如何实现它们?

     

    14. Proteins are chemically complex, enabling proteins to perform diverse chemical functions in the cell, but be difficult to engineer and model. In contrast, DNA less chemically complex. How can we exploit the simplicity of DNA’s chemical structure to predict the shape that a strand of DNA will adopt? How do we use this predictive capability to engineer custom DNA shapes (like smiley faces), or processes (like an AND logic gate)? What are the limits of DNA nanotechnology? [Erika]

    蛋白质具有复杂的化学结构使蛋白质在细胞中发挥不同的化学功能,但很难进行工程设计和建模。相比之下,DNA的化学复杂性较低。我们如何利用DNA化学结构的简单性来预测DNA链的形状?我们如何使用这种预测能力来设计定制的DNA形状(如笑脸),或处理(如“与”逻辑门)?DNA纳米技术的极限是什么?

     

    15. CRISPR enzymes can have off-target effects that may have unintended side effects of a therapy. What are strategies that are used to identify these off-target effects. How are these off-targets avoided and how are CRISPR enzymes engineered to alleviate this problem? [Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    CRISPR酶可能会产生脱靶效应,可能会导致在治疗过程中出现意想不到的副作用。用来识别这些脱靶效应的策略是什么?如何设计CRISPR酶,避免产生脱靶效应?

     

    16. Some CRISPR systems don’t act on DNA but, instead, on RNA. What function do these proteins have and how are these interesting proteins being harnessed for treating human disease? [Alim]

    有些CRISPR系统不作用于DNA,而作用于RNA。这些蛋白有什么功能?这些有趣的蛋白是如何被用来治疗人类疾病的?

     

    17. How can CRISPR systems be used to treat human disease outside of gene editing? How are CRISPR proteins being used to change the expression of genes and why would one want to do this? [Alim, Zeynep, Nadia]

    除了基因编辑外,如何利用CRISPR系统治疗人类疾病?CRISPR蛋白是如何用于改变基因表达?为什么要这样做?

     

    18. If you wanted to insert an entirely new gene into the genome, how would you achieve this? What current technologies are used for gene insertion, what are their limitations, and what new technologies on the horizon can transform this problem? [Alim, Zeynep, Erin]

    如果你想在基因组中插入一个全新的基因,你会怎么做呢?目前有哪些用于基因插入的技术?它们的局限性是什么?有哪些新技术可以改变这个问题?

     

    19. How are CRISPR enzymes being used to treat humans today? What kinds of diseases are being treated, why were they chosen, and how are CRISPR enzymes critical to the success of the treatment? What are the limitations of CRISPR in the clinic that have limited its ability to treat more diseases? [Alim, Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    如今,CRISPR酶如何用于治疗人类?现在可以用来治愈哪些疾病?为什么选择它们?CRISPR酶是如何对治疗的成功起到关键性作用的?CRISPR在临床上有哪些局限性限制了其治疗更多疾病的能力?

     

    20. If you wanted to treat a genetic disease in a living human with CRISPR, how would you get the enzyme to the diseased tissue of interest? How and why are viruses commonly used to deliver CRISPR to cells? [Alim, Zeynep, Nadia]

    如果你想用CRISPR治疗人类的遗传性疾病,你如何将酶转移到目标病变组织?病毒如何以及为什么通常被用于向细胞传递CRISPR?

     

    21. How can CRISPR enzymes be used to diagnose disease? SHERLOCK and DETECTR are two platforms for detection of diseases and viruses. What are these tools, why are they increasingly gaining popularity as diagnostics, and how are these platforms being applied to detect viruses like COVID-19? [Alim]

    如何利用CRISPR酶诊断疾病?SHERLOCK和DETECTR是两个检测疾病和病毒的平台,它们使用的工具是什么?为什么它们越来越广泛地用作诊断工具?如何应用这些平台检测例如新型冠状病毒这样的病毒?

     

    22. New CRISPR enzymes are found every day from nature using computational tools. What are these computational tools, how do they work, and what new enzymes have been found using these techniques? [Alim]

    利用计算工具,每天都能从自然界中发现新的CRISPR酶,这些计算工具是什么?它们是如何工作的?使用这些技术发现了哪些新的酶?

     

    23. Next-generation sequencing is a transformative technology used by companies like 23andMe and Ancestry.com, by enabling rapid and inexpensive reading of DNA. How does next-generation sequencing work and how is it applied in research and in the clinic? [Alim, Erin, Nadia]

    高通量测序是一项革命性技术,可以快速、低成本地读取DNA,被23andMe和Ancestry.com等公司使用。高通量测序是如何工作的?又是如何在研究和临床中应用的?

     

    24. Is it ethically appropriate to modify genomes including humans? What are the risks and how can we foresee the potential outcomes? [Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    修改基因组(包括人类基金组)是否符合伦理?有哪些风险?我们如何预测可能的结果?

     

    25. How can we use online genetic data in order to study genetic diseases and roles of genes in cell biology? [Zeynep, Erin, Nadia]

    如何利用在线遗传数据来研究遗传疾病和基因在细胞生物学中的作用?

     

    26. Why is DNA sequencing important for scientific research? How does next generation sequencing compare with the previous sequencing methods, such as Sanger sequencing? And how are they simultaneously used in research? [Nadia]

    为什么DNA测序对科学研究很重要?高通量测序与之前的测序方法(如双脱氧链终止法)相比有哪些特点?如何将它们同时用于研究?

     

    27. How has the next generation sequencing transformed scientific research? What is the 1000 genome and 100,000 genome projects? [Nadia]

    高通量测序如何改变了科学研究?千人基因组计划和10万基因组计划是什么?

     

    28. Most testing for COVID-19 is currently done on viral genetic material from nose and throat swabs, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The next big goal is to develop a serological test. What are the molecular principles qPCR and PCR. What might be the issues associated with this diagnostic technique? [Nadia]

    目前,大多数检测COVID-19的方法是使用分子生物学中的逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)的常用工具,对来自鼻咽拭子的病毒遗传物质进行。下一个紧迫的目标是开发血清学测试。qPCR和PCR的分子原理是什么?与这种诊断技术相关的问题是什么?

     

    29. All cancers arise as a result of changes that have occurred in the DNA sequence of the genomes of cancer cells, but not all mutations in cancer cells are involved in the development of cancer. What are driver and passenger mutations and why is it important to differentiate between them? How is the cancer genetic research revolutionizing treatment and management of cancer patients (with regards to cancer in general or a specific cancer type)? [Nadia]

    所有癌症的发生都是癌细胞基因组的DNA序列发生变化的结果,但并不是所有癌细胞的突变都参与了癌症的发生。什么是驱动突变和乘客突变?为什么区分它们很重要?癌症基因研究如何彻底改变某些一般癌症或特定类型癌症患者的治疗和管理的?

  • 神经科学

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    研究方向一:Marta Madureira【神经科学和神经退行性疾病】

     

    随着科技和医学的迅速发展,我们的预期寿命在上个世纪大大提高。人口老龄化对我们有什么影响?为什么神经退行性疾病对社会和经济造成了如此沉重的压力?为什么目前的治疗无效?为什么很难找到治愈方法?神经退行性变的遗传因素是什么?未来开发新疗法的策略是什么?本课程将通过对神经退行性变的概述和研究最常见的疾病来解决这些问题。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. In a world where life expectancy has greatly increased, the population is aging. Why are neurodegenerative disorders linked to ageing?

    如今人们预期寿命显著提高,人口正在老龄化。 为什么神经退行性疾病与衰老有关?

     

    2. What are the most common neurodegenerative disorders and are there available treatments?

    最常见的神经退行性疾病是什么?有可用的治疗方法吗?

     

    3. Why are certain areas of the brain susceptible to neurodegeneration? How do neurodegenerative disorders affect other parts of the human body?

    为什么大脑的某些区域易受神经退化的影响?神经退行性疾病如何影响人体的其他部分?

     

    4. What are the mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease or Parkinson’s Disease?

    阿尔茨海默症或帕金森病等神经退行性疾病的发病机制是什么?

     

    5. Are there models to study AD and PD? What are their advantages? What are their caveats?

    是否有研究阿尔茨海默症或帕金森病的模型?它们的优点是什么?有限性又是什么?

     

    6. Can we use gene editing to study neurodegeneration? Can CRISPR be used as genetic therapy?

    我们可以用基因编辑来研究神经退行性变吗?CRISPR可以用作基因治疗吗?

     

    7. Why are current treatments considered ineffective? How can we develop new therapies for these disorders?

    为什么目前的治疗被认为无效?我们如何为这些疾病开发新的治疗方法?

     

    8. What are the genetic factors contributing to neurodegeneration? Are environmental factors also contributing?

    导致神经退行性变的遗传因素是什么?环境因素也有影响吗?

     

    9. Can we “predict” who is going to develop dementia? What are some of the approaches to tackle this problem?

    我们能“预测”谁会得痴呆症吗?有哪些方法可以解决这个问题?

     

    10. Will personalised medicine fulfil its potential for neurodegeneration in the clinic?

    针对个人的特制药是否可能用于神经退行性疾病的临床治疗?

     

    11. Can we revert neurodegeneration? What would be some of the strategies for this?

    我们能逆转神经退行性变吗?对此有什么策略?

     

    12. Is adult neurogenesis the answer?

    成体神经发生会是解决方法吗?

     

    13. iPSC-derived neurons as a model for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

    iPSC衍生神经元作为研究阿尔茨海默症和帕金森病的模型。

     

    14. LRRK2 is one of the most commonly mutated genes in Parkinson’s disease. But why is the role of LRRK2 still unknown?

    LRRK2是帕金森病中最常见的突变基因之一。但是为什么LRRK2的作用仍然未知?

     

    15. What is autophagy and why is it so important for neurons?

    什么是自噬?为什么自噬对神经元如此重要?

     

    16. The curious case of a sleeping disorder that “predicts” Parkinson’s Disease.

    睡眠异常的奇怪案例“预测”了帕金森病。

    研究方向二:Patrick Liu【人类行为的神经生物学】

     

    尽管人类行为具有难以置信的复杂性,但我们能够采用解构分析的方式,分解并更好地理解行为的各个方面。学生将跟随导师学习神经生物学的基础知识,并以此尝试解决生物学、神经科学、心理学和社会学中对人类社会、政治和医学具有广泛影响的紧迫问题。包括:人类行为是如何进化的?什么因素对人格发展影响最大?有关大脑的发现如何有助于解释人类的互动与行为?我们能从其他物种的分子与细胞研究中了解到什么?理解单个神经元,对我们更好地理解意识有何帮助?

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. A review of important neurobiology fundamentals.

    回顾重要的神经生物学基础。

     

    2. How do genes and environment interact to shape who we are? How we determine their effects? Is one more important than the other? Where did our personality come from?

    基因和环境是如何通过相互作用来塑造人类的?我们如何确定它们的影响?这两者的重要性是否有主次之分?我们的个性从何而来?

     

    3. How can we study the brain? How do we know which brain regions are responsible for certain behaviors? What are the limitations to studying the brain?

    我们可以通过哪种方式研究脑部?我们如何知道哪些脑部区域负责哪些特定行为?对脑部的研究存在哪些局限性?

     

    4. How have evolutionary timescales and pressures carved human behavior? How can understanding the cellular basis of neural circuits explain our movements and the behaviors we make? Is human behavior entirely unique? What can we learn from the behavior of other animals in the evolutionary tree?

    进化的时间尺度和进化压力是如何影响人类行为的?如何理解用神经回路细胞基础解释我们的动作和行为?人类的行为是否是独一无二的?我们能从进化树上其他动物的行为中学到什么?

     

    5. How did consciousness evolve? How do consciousness and intellect connect? Is there a limit to human consciousness?

    意识是如何进化的?意识和智力是如何联系在一起的?人类的意识有极限吗?

     

    6. How does the brain process and store information? How does emotion affect the brain’s judgment? More broadly, how do cognition, emotion, and memory mutually influence each other?

    大脑是如何处理和存储信息的?情绪如何影响大脑的判断?更广泛地说,认知、情感和记忆是如何相互影响的?

     

    7. Where do empathy and sympathy come from? What can we learn about these from brain disorders and psychopathology? Does altruism really exist?

    同理心和同情心从何而来?我们能从大脑疾病和精神病理学中学到什么?利他主义是否真的存在?

     

    8. Why do humans and animals sleep? What purpose does it serve? How is sleep regulated?

    为什么人类和动物会睡觉?睡觉的意义是什么?睡眠是如何调节的?

     

    9. As complex as decision making can be, what do we already know about its underlying processes?

    尽管决策过程可能非常复杂,但我们已经对其深层流程了解了多少?

  • 政治理论与哲学

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    什么证明了国家的权威?一个公正的社会应该保障哪些基本自由?社会应该如何看待隐性偏见、历史不公正以及种族主义、阶级主义和性别歧视的结构?精英制度能否与根深蒂固的特权并存?在Cabezas先生的课程中,我们将根据他在哥伦比亚大学的当代文明(CC)课程中教授的部分内容来研究这些问题。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. What justifies the authority of the state? What are the problems associated with social life in the absence of government (i.e. a state of nature)? How does the "social contract" proposed by the likes of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau work as a solution to these problems?

    是什么让一个国家的权威受到认可?在无政府的状态下(自然状态下)哪些问题与社会生活有关联?Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau 等人所提出的社会契约论是如何解决这些问题的?

     

    2. What are the supreme principles (if any) that should guide our moral conduct? Do they admit of exceptions?

    指导我们道德行为的最高准则有哪些?这些道德准则是否允许例外情况?

     

    3. What is implicit bias? Should we blame agents for having implicit biases even if they are outside their control?

    什么是隐形偏见? 我们是否应该指责代理人存在隐形偏见,即便是这些偏见不在他们控制范围之内。

     

    4. Can we explain the various aspects of social reality purely in terms of individual beliefs, actions and intentions? Or does an adequate explanation of social reality require reference to social phenomena such as organizations, social structures and social laws?

    我们能否单纯根据个人信仰,行为和意图来解释社会现实的各个方面?假如想要对社会现实做出充分解释,是否需要参考组织,社会结构和社会法等社会现象?

     

    5. Is morality merely a matter of personal (or group) opinion? Or are there objective moral facts that transcend cultures and historical eras?

    道德是否仅仅是与个人(或群体)意见有关?是否有超越文化和历史时代的客观道德事实?

     

    6. What are the basic liberties that a just society should secure? Is being free not having others interfere with one's personal affairs? Or is it to have the capacity to make one's own laws by participating in the collective process of government? Or is freedom a matter of not being subject to the arbitrary power of the state and/or other subjects?

    在一个公正的社会里,哪些基本自由权应该得到保障?是没有人会干涉其他人的私人事务?或者是否有能力通过参与政府集体事务来制定自己的法律?或者自由是不受国家和/或其他主体的任意权力影响的问题?

     

    7. What is the role of privileges or unearned advantages in sustaining systems of oppression?

    对于特权或那些还未获得的独有优势,在保持压迫性的社会系统的作用是什么?

     

    8. What are our moral duties regarding injustices in which we participate indirectly (e.g. buying clothes produced in sweatshops)?

    我们对于间接参与部分不公正的行为(比如购买血汗工厂生产的衣服)的道德责任是什么?

     

    9. Are we morally responsible for the moral failures of our ancestors (e.g. colonization, slavery, the Holocaust)? What about the present-day consequences of their moral failures?

    我们是否应该从道义上对我们祖先的失败负责(例如殖民,奴役,大屠杀)?这些失败对我们当今社会带来了什么结果?

     

    10. What are some convincing argument for the right to reparations for African-Americans?

    对非洲裔美国人的赔偿权这一问题,是否有令人信服的论据?

     

    11. Why are epistemic virtues such as humility, open-mindedness, and curiosity important for our life in community?

    为什么一些美德比如谦虚,开放以及好奇对于我们的生活很重要?

     

    12. What is the importance of public deliberation and disagreement for a democratic society?

    公众审议以及分歧,对一个民主社会的重要性是什么?

     

    13. Can people be willfully ignorant? If so, how does willful ignorance contribute to the maintenance of social injustice?

    人们会有意表现无知嘛?如果是这样的话,有意的无知如何维护社会不公问题?

     

    14. Given that science has ruled out the existence of biological races, should we give up the concept of race? Or is there a plausible non-biological concept of race that can contribute to a better understanding of racial relations?

    考虑到科学家已经排除了生物种族的存在,我们是否应该抛弃种族的概念?是否有一种看似合理的非生物种族概念可以帮我们更好理解种族关系?

     

    15. What is the difference between race, ethnicity and nationality?

    种族,民族,国籍之间的区别是什么?

     

    16. Is racism a matter of individual beliefs, intentions and actions, or can racism also take place at the level of institutions and social structures?

    种族主义是否只与个人信仰、意图以及行为有关;还是说种族主义也存在于制度和社会结构层面。

     

    17. What is intersectionality? How does it contribute to a better understanding of gender, race and class?

    交叉性是什么?交叉性如何帮助人们更好理解性别,种族以及社会阶层?

  • 认知科学

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    什么是“思想”?我们的思想是如何与世界相连的?本课程利用哲学和认知科学来研究心灵和认知的本质,特别侧重于感知和思维。学生根据自己的兴趣可以专注于解读科学实验,也可以专注于思考所引发的哲学问题。本课程是Craig先生在牛津大学教授的一门课程的改编版本。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. Perceptual Experience 1: What do perceptual illusions and hallucinations reveal about the nature of perceptual experience? In particular, do these phenomena show that we never ‘directly’ see the world as it is?

    感性体验1:感性幻觉和幻觉所揭示的感性的本质是什么?这些现象是否表明我们从未“直接”看这个世界。

     

    2. Perceptual Experience 2: Can a person’s perceptual experiences be influenced by that person’s prior beliefs, expectations and desires? What is the best interpretation of experiments that purport to show that the answer to this question is ‘yes’?

    感性体验2:一个人的感性体验是否会受其曾经的信仰,经历或者愿望所影响?怎样对实验进行解读才能表明该问题的答案是肯定的?

     

    3. Explanation in Cognitive Science: What should cognitive scientists look for in a satisfying explanation of human behaviour?

    认知科学中的解释:认知科学家们要在人类行为的解释中寻找什么答案?

     

    4. The Nature of Mind: Is the mind a purely physical or material thing? Are mental states physical states?

    意识的本质:意识是否是一个纯粹的物理事物?精神状态是否是一种物理状态?

     

    5. The ‘Language of Thought’ Hypothesis: What is the language of thought hypothesis, and is it possible to understand mental processes as computational processes without a language of thought?

    “思维语言”假设:思维假设的语言是什么?是否可以将心理过程理解为一种没有思维语言的计算过程?

     

    6. The Nature of Consciousness: Describe Ned Block’s distinction between ‘phenomenal consciousness’ and ‘access consciousness’. Does scientific work show that phenomenal consciousness can exist in the absence of access consciousness?

    意识的本质:请描述Ned Block对于现象意识和访问意识的区别。科学报告中是否表明在没有访问意识的情况下可以与现象意识共存?

     

    7. Delusions: To understand what is going on when people suffer from delusions, must we postulate abnormalities in how beliefs are formed and maintained, or does it suffice to appeal to abnormalities in perception or experience?

    妄想:为了了解人们在受妄想困扰时到底经历了什么,是否我们必须探明信仰是如何形成并维持的或者是否足以感知或者经历中的一些异常行为?

     

    8. Modularity: What is the modularity thesis? Assess the scientific case for the thesis that the mind is modular.

    模块化:什么是模块化论文?评估那些认为意识是模块化的科学案例。

  • 心理学

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    研究方向一:Payton Jones【临床心理学与数据科学】

     

     

    我们是如何一步步迈入心理疾病的深渊的?本课题将带领大家探究有关情绪障碍的病发原因及其对应的理论知识,借助统计学与“机器学习”中的数据手段加深理解心理和情绪障碍的现象。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. The network theory of mental disorders states that mental disorders do not have a single underlying cause, but instead are the result of feedback loops in a complex system. How does this theory apply to depression? Anxiety? Trauma? Other psychological problems?

    通过对神经网络的研究,我们发现心理障碍并不是一朝一夕产生的,而是由于一系列的连锁反应导致的系统性变化。如何将这个理论中的启示应用于对抑郁症、焦虑症、心理创伤等心理障碍的认识?

     

    2. Why do mental disorder co-occur at such high rates? How can network analysis inform the comorbidity between them?

    如何看到心理疾病的共病现象?分析神经网络将如何帮助我们认识不同心理疾病间的紧密联系?

     

    3. How can novel developments in data science (e.g., machine learning methods) contribute to the field of clinical psychology?

    新兴的数据科学领域,如“机器学习”,如何为临床心理学开启新的突破?

     

    4. What can we learn from exploratory data analysis of mental disorder symptoms? What kinds of psychometric data analyses and visualizations are most helpful?

    如何用探索式数据分析认识情绪障碍的病状?心理计量数据与可视化分析中哪些方法对于这个领域有显著的帮助?

     

    5. Why are rates of emotional disorders often observed to be more common in developed nations compared to less developed nations?

    为什么发达国家相比于不发达国家拥有更高的心理疾病发病率?

     

    6. Does it make more sense to call mental disorders (e.g., depression) a "brain disease"? Why or why not?

    将类似于抑郁的心理障碍称为生理上的“脑部疾病”是否可行?为什么?

     

    7. One hallmark of anxiety disorders is avoidance. What factors lead people to avoid verus approach their fears?

    焦虑症中最为典型的“回避”行为是如何形成的?人们为什么会选择回避恐惧,而不是直面恐惧?

     

    8. Rates of violence across across the world have been steadily decreasing. If this is indeed the case, why are rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stagnant or even increasing?

    随着全球暴力事件的减少,为什么创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的发病率仍然只增不减?

     

    9. To what extent do mental disorders represent a "mismatch" between the modern world and our environment during evolution? What factors of modernity might influence mental illness?

    心理障碍是否源于现代社会环境与原人类演化的环境的不协调?哪些现代化进程会促进心理障碍的产生?

     

    10. What are the "active ingredients" in psychotherapies for emotional disorders? How do we know that these are really the mechanisms of change?

    什么才是情绪障碍的有效心理调节机制的精髓?

     

    11. What is depression, exactly? Is it one syndrome, or is it a collection of different syndromes that we've grouped under the same name?

    抑郁症是一个单一的病症还是由一系列不同病症组成的综合病症?

     

    12. Are today's youth really more anxious and depressed than youth in the past? If so, what is contributing to this increase?

    当代年轻人是否比过去一代更为焦虑和沮丧?背后的原因是什么?

     

    13. Why do some individuals with PTSD seem to compulsively revisit their traumatic past? How does this square with research on avoidance?

    创伤应激反应的患者为什么会不由自主地回忆起过去遭遇的创伤?这个现象如何帮助我们理解“规避现象”?

     

    14. Are trigger warnings or safe spaces effective approaches to helping those with PTSD? Why or why not?

    “触感警示”和“安全空间”的设立是否能真正帮助创伤应激反应的患者?

     

    15. Today, phones and devices capture a huge amount of data about individuals (e.g., location, movement, texts, phone calls, app usage). Can this data be used for good when it comes to mental health? How?

    如今,移动通讯设备掌握的大量如位置、动向、信息、通话、软件使用情况的个人信息如何帮助我们促进大众心理健康?

     

    16. Can people really experience "post-traumatic growth" after a trauma? If so, what does this growth look like?

    经历重大创伤的人们是否真的会有“创伤后成长”?这种成长表现在什么方面?

    研究方向二:Ema Tanovic临床心理学

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. Does it make more sense to call mental disorders (e.g., depression) a "brain disease"? Why or why not?

    将抑郁症等精神疾病称为“大脑疾病”是否更为合理?为什么?

     

    2. One hallmark of anxiety disorders is avoidance. What factors lead people to avoid versus approach their fears?

    焦虑症的一个特征就是逃避。是什么因素导致人们不敢直面自己的恐惧?

     

    3. What are the "active ingredients" in psychotherapies for emotional disorders? How do we know that these are really the mechanisms of change?

    精神疗法治疗情绪障碍的“有效成分”是什么?我们怎么知道这些机制是在变化的?

     

    4. What is depression, exactly? Is it one syndrome, or is it a collection of different syndromes that we've grouped under the same name?

    抑郁症到底是什么?它是一种综合症还是同一名称类别下的不同综合症的集合?

     

    5. Are today's youth really more anxious and depressed than youth in the past? If so, what is contributing to this increase?

    今天的年轻人真的比过去的年轻人更焦虑和抑郁吗?如果是这样,是什么导致了这种现象?

     

    6. Uncertainty is a core feature of our everyday lives, especially during current times. How do humans respond to uncertainty? How does it affect our cognition, emotions, and behavior?

    当今时代,不确定性是我们日常生活的一个核心特征。人类如何应对不确定性?它如何影响我们的认知、情绪和行为?

     

    7. How does the psychological trait of intolerance of uncertainty increase risk for anxiety disorders?

    偏执的心理特征是如何增加患焦虑症的风险的?

     

    8. Does it make sense to think of mental disorders are discrete categories or as dimensions that we all vary on?

    把精神障碍看作是离散的类别或者是不同维度的类别合理吗?

     

    9. How do cognitive factors like attention, memory, and interpretation contribute to depression?

    注意力、记忆和解释等认知因素是如何导致抑郁的?

     

    10. What is the difference between fear and anxiety?

    恐惧和焦虑的区别是什么?

     

    11. How do we regulate our emotions? How does emotion regulation go awry in psychopathology?

    我们如何调节自己的情绪?在精神病理学中,情绪调节是如何出现错误的?

     

    12. Is worry adaptive?

    忧虑具有适应性吗?

     

    13. Rumination refers to repetitive negative thought about the past, and worry refers to repetitive negative thought about the future. Are these two processes fundamentally the same or different?

    反刍是指对过去重复产生消极思想,而忧虑是指对未来重复产生消极思想。这两个情绪过程本质上是相同的还是不同的?

     

    14. Why are we not better at treating mental disorders?

    为什么我们不能更好地治疗精神疾病?

    研究方向三:Sori Baek认知心理学

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

     

    1. How do people learn a new language? Is it different for adults and kids?

    人们如何学习一门新的语言?成人和儿童的学习情况会有不同吗?

     

    2. What helps a memory stick? What helps us remember things better?

    什么有助于加强记忆?什么能帮助我们更好地记忆?

     

    3. What makes memories become more accurate or inaccurate? What does this mean for eyewitness testimonies?

    是什么让记忆变得更准确或更不准确?这对于目击者的证词来说这意味着什么?

     

    4. Why are we so good at seeing “faces” from objects, like an outlet or a smiley face ()? Does this have an evolutionary reason?

    为什么我们会在物体(例如插座或笑脸)上看到“面孔”? 这跟进化有关系吗?

     

    5. Carrying a heavier backpack can make a hill look bigger. What are some other ways in which things change our perception?

    重书包让山更陡峭。还有哪些其它方式可以改变我们的认知?

     

    6. What affects our attention, and what distracts us? How do we select what we pay attention to?

    什么会影响我们的注意力?什么会分散我们的注意力?我们如何选择我们所关注的东西?

     

    7. How do other people affect how we think? How do opinions of others change our own opinions?

    其他人如何影响我们的思维?别人的看法如何改变我们自己的看法?

     

    8. Why are we so captivated by surprising and unexpected things, like magic? Does this have an evolutionary reason?

    为什么我们会被一些意想不到的事情(比如魔法)所吸引? 这跟进化有关系吗?

     

    9. How do optical illusions work? How do they trick our brains?

    视错觉的原理是什么?它们是如何欺骗我们的大脑的?

     

    10. What happens in our brain when we make predictions that turn out to be wrong? How does this experience help us learn?

    当我们做出的预测被证明是错误的时候,我们的大脑会发生什么?这些经历如何帮助我们学习?

     

    11. We’re really good at hearing our name, even if it’s said by someone standing really far away in a loud room. Why does this happen?

    即使某人站在距离很远、很喧闹的房间内叫我们的名字,我们依然可以听到。这是为什么呢?

     

    12. Are babies’ brains as good as adults’ brains? In what way?

    婴儿的大脑和成人的一样吗?哪些方面一样?哪些方面不一样?

     

    13. What do babies do to learn? Are they good learners?

    婴儿如何学习的?他们善于学习吗?

     

    14. Can newborn babies tell their mothers apart from other people? In what way?

    新生婴儿能区分他们的母亲和其他人吗?他们是以何种方式进行区分的呢?

     

    15. A lot of toys are marketed to be good for the brain. Is this true? Which toys? Why or why not?

    市场有很多声称对大脑发育有益的玩具。这是真的吗?哪些玩具有益?为什么或为什么不?

     

    16. What is our brain doing when we form memories and remember things from the past?

    当我们形成记忆并记住往事时,我们的大脑在做什么?

     

    17. What is our brain doing when we see numbers and do math?

    当我们看到数字和做数学题时,我们的大脑在做什么?

     

    18. What is our brain doing when we see alphabets and read a sentence?

    当我们看到字母和阅读句子时,我们的大脑在做什么?

     

    19. What is our brain doing when we’re not paying attention in class?

    当我们在课堂上注意力不集中时,我们的大脑在做什么?

     

    20. How does the brain change when we learn a new skill and become better at it?

    当我们学习一项新技能并变得更擅长这项技能时,大脑是如何变化的?

  • 化学配方

    导师背景

     

    课程简述

    你是否曾对日用产品中的化学成分感到十分好奇?为什么洗完头发几个小时后还能闻到洗发水的清香呢?为什么在饮料或零食包装上会印着一长串的成分表呢?如何控制新治疗药物在人体内的释放呢?如果你对这些问题感兴趣的话,那么这门有关配方化学的课程就是为你而设计的。Brossault老师将在课上解答更多诸如此类的问题。

     

    你将跟随Brossault老师研究配方化学的主要概念(乳剂制备、系统稳定性、封装技术、表征方法),继而研究其在食品、涂料涂层、化妆品或制药业中的具体应用。然后,该研究型的课程项目将针对“化学配方与材料科学”交叉学科中的某项具体科学挑战,展开一份全面的文献综述。这门课程将充分利用Brossault在剑桥大学和赛诺菲等行业领先制药公司期间,针对配方化学领域的研究成果,展开课程设计。

     

    你可以选择的研究方向包括:

    1. Food industry (e.g. Preparation of fat-free products with preserved textural properties)

    食品行业(例如能够保存口味特征的脱脂产品的制备)


    2. Cosmetics (e.g. Preparation of shampoos with sustained release of active principles)

    化妆品(例如能够持续释放活性成分的洗发水的制备)


    3. Plastics (e.g. Comparison of Plant-based vs oil-based materials)
    塑料领域(例如植物基与油基材料的对比)

     

    4. Paints & Coatings (e.g. Preparation of non-toxic paintings with enhanced drying and resistance properties)

    涂料涂层(例如具有较强干燥性和耐受性的无毒涂料的制备)

     

    5. Pharmaceutical industry (e.g. Targeted drug delivery systems for controlled release of therapeutic compounds)

    制药行业(例如控制治疗性化合物释放的“靶向给药系统”)


    6. Agriculture (e.g. Controlled release of herbicides on crops)

    农业(例如除草剂在农作物上的受控性释放)

     

    7. Environmental applications (e.g. Composite materials for water pollutant removal)

    环境应用领域(例如用于水污染治理的复合材料)

     

    8. Buildings and roads (e.g. Development of self-healing concrete)

    建筑物与道路建设领域(例如自愈合混凝土的发展)

  • 课程结构

     

    Horizon Lab为学生提供跟随哈佛大学、剑桥大学、哥伦比亚大学、牛津大学、麻省理工学院讲师学习不同领域专业知识的机会,学生可以选择自己心仪的研究课题和方向,在导师的引导下共同制定独特的研究方案研究,撰写一篇大学水平的全英文学术论文。

     

    研究结束后,导师将根据学生的学术能力与论文呈现进行评估,项目完成优秀者或可收到导师、教学助理或视界顾问的推荐信。

     

    20小时的导师1对1咨询

    Horizon Lab的导师是来自全球顶尖院校的博士研究员,他们一直从事各自领域最前沿的学术研究,大多数人都拥有本科教学经验。导师会教给学生关键概念和必要的背景知识以进行研究。

    定制课程设计

    Lab导师会通过主题咨询,听取学生最感兴趣的主题,为学生定制研究计划。一旦学生确定了研究主题,就会收到定制的建议阅读清单,并且课程将转向个性化的指导课程。

    全链教学计划

    Horizon Lab课程内容包括:各课题组专业知识;如何从撰写短论文过渡到撰写长篇论文的写作辅导;如何使用电话会议软件和在线提交系统;学术界的研究道德和学术诚信。

    动态写作诊断

    Horizon提供了在线写作诊断协助学生写作,教授文体、语法等写作要素,及时反馈学生写作出现的问题,帮助学生改进论文初稿,完成研究任务。

    视频软件在线授课

    Horizon所有课程都将通过视频会议软件进行,学生可以通过观看图片、视频、幻灯片展示、对话交流和文字聊天的方式与教授交流。课后,学生可以通过邮件、电话与教授沟通。

    项目收获

    • 全英文学术论文
    • 专业评估报告
    • 导师推荐信(或由助教出具)
    • 50000美元奖学金获取机会(需在项目完成后,单独申请)
  • 评估方法

    Horizon学术研究项目不以学生的学术成果作为评价的唯一标准,而是采用综合评估体系,综合考量学生的动机和勤奋程度(课堂出勤率),修改提升论文质量的意愿和能力,以及最终学术成果评估。

    Horizon,学术研究项目,哈佛,剑桥,达特茅斯学院,名校教授,推荐信,学术写作,写作能力,英语写作,英文论文,大学论文,发表,学术能力,学术研究,研究经历,课题,行为经济学,经济学,环境工程学,国际关系学,计算机科学,生物技术,哲学,一对一授课,在线,线上学习,奖学金,定制课程,实验