• 项目时间

     

     

    2020 · 夏季项目:2020年7月3日-2020年9月18日

    申请截止日期:2020年6月19日

     

    2020 · 秋季项目:2020年10月23日-2021年2月21日

    申请截止日期:2020年10月12日

     

    2021 · 春季项目:2021年3月1日- 6月14日

  • 2020年研究课题

    本期课程有以下研究方向供参考。在你的研究论文中,你须选择一个议题,阐述、捍卫你的立场。特殊情况下,学生也可以调整以下课题方向,或选择国际关系中的其他议题(在导师认可且议题值得讨论的前提下)。如果学生驳斥某论点(比如,批判国际货币基金组织,或论证伊朗拥核是种威胁),学生须列举一个或多个解决对策。

     

    如果你对其他专业方向的课题感兴趣,也可以联系我们说明你的想法,我们会为你定制相应的研究课程。

  • 一对多小班课程

    环境工程学

    行为经济学

    国际关系学

  • 一对一Lab课程

    计算机科学、生物技术

    认知科学

  • James J. Truncer

    环境工程学

    生态系统是如何崩溃的?如何设计环境灾难的解决方案?Truncer博士的课程探讨了人类社会如何应对环境系统崩溃。学生可以研究与农业生产、城市化、基础设施、资源利用和现代工程创新相关的各种可持续性问题。【Truncer博士曾在哈佛大学和斯坦福大学任教。

     

     

    1. Oceans are absorbing increasing amounts of carbon dioxide and are becoming more acidic. How will this affect marine ecosystems and thus human society? What policies might be implemented to make the public more aware of this looming environmental crisis and what incentives would encourage governments to take action?

    现今,海洋吸收的二氧化碳越来越多,其酸性也越来越高。这将如何影响海洋生态系统,从而影响人类社会?可以通过实施哪些政策提高公众的环境危机意识?有哪些因素能够激励政府对此采取措施?

     

    2. The recent tremendous growth of urban areas has created a multitude of environmental problems and challenges. Choose one area of urban design that can improve the urban environment – what costs and benefits are involved?

    近期城市地区的巨大增长造成了大量的环境问题和挑战。请选择一个可以改善城市环境的设计- 这一设计会带来哪些成本和收益?

     

    3. How can cities and their infrastructure be designed for the predicted changes in climate? Provide specific examples in your response.

    城市及其基础设施应如何设计以应对可预测的气候变化?请在你的回答中提供具体的例子。

     

    4. Are the economic benefits of dam building worth the environmental costs?

    大坝建设的经济效益是否能抵消其带来的环境成本?

     

    5. What are the latest advances in hydroponic and vertical farming? Are these the food production methods of the future? What are the costs?

    水耕法和垂直农业的最新进展是什么?这些农业生产方式将会是未来的主要农业生产方式吗?它们的成本是多少?

     

    6. What advantages does organic farming have over conventional farming? Can organic farms compete with conventional farms in feeding the world?

    有机农业跟常规农业相比有什么优势?从世界范围的食品供应角度来看,有机农场能与传统农场相匹敌吗?

     

    7. Are genetically modified organisms (GMOs) significantly different from the variation produced through more traditional methods of cross-breeding and the creation of hybrids?

    转基因生物(GMO)是否与传统交叉繁殖法和杂交法创造的变种有巨大的差异?

     

    8. Sea level rise is expected to impact many coastal cities and islands (e.g. Adaman Islands) in the coming years. What are the advantages or disadvantages of relocating an island settlement or city versus building dikes and protective barriers such as in the case of the Netherlands?

    未来几年,海平面上升预计将影响许多沿海城市和岛屿(例如,阿达曼群岛)。那么迁移岛屿或城市的位置与建设堤坝和防御性屏障(以荷兰为例)相比,前者的优势和劣势分别是什么?

     

    9. Soil erosion is severe in many areas of the world. What farming methods and other activities are creating this erosion? What farming methods can not only reduce soil erosion but build nutrient-rich soil that enhances crop yields and lowers carbon emissions substantially? What policies might encourage soil conservation on farmland?

    世界许多地区的土壤侵蚀问题严重。什么样的农耕方式或活动会造成这种侵蚀?什么样的耕作方法可以减少土壤侵蚀并帮助形成能够显著提高作物产量、降低碳排放的沃土?什么政策能够有利于推动农田土壤保护?

     

    10. Money and research is now being poured into the technology of self-driving cars. Is maintaining the concept of “car” an efficient means of transportation, or are there better, more sustainable systems for the movement of people?

    现今,大量的资金和研究资源正在涌入自动驾驶技术的市场。“汽车”这一概念还是一种有效的交通工具吗,还是有更好的、可持续的交通系统有待发明?

     

    11. Renewable energy sources are gaining more and more attention, and represent an increasingly larger percentage of energy production. What is the most promising type of renewable energy and why? Can modern society completely convert to renewable energy sources from a largely carbon-based system? What further advances or changes in lifestyle might be required?

    可再生能源越来越受到重视,代表着可再生能源占能源生产的比例越来越大。哪一种可再生能源最有发展前景,为什么?现代社会可以从一个大规模依赖碳能源系统的社会完全转化为可再生能源体系吗?人类的生活方式需要有进一步的改变或提高吗?

     

    12. Most large farms rely on mechanization and need to add massive amounts of artificial fertilizer to produce high crop yields. How did this situation come about, and is this a sustainable practice? What are the carbon costs of such agriculture and are there feasible alternatives?

    大多数大农场依靠机械化,需要增加大量的人造肥料来提供产量。这种情况是如何发生的,这是可持续的做法吗?这种农业方式的碳成本是多少?有其他可行的选择吗?

     

    13. Some architects are now designing “walkable” cities. What does this mean and what are the advantages and disadvantages of such and urban design? Illustrate your response with Examples.

    一些建筑师正在设计“步行”城市。这是什么意思?这类城市设计的优点和缺点是什么?请用具体的例子与以说明。

     

    14. Are United Nations treaties and resolutions an effect means to pass worldwide sustainability measures or is a different system necessary?

    联合国的条约和决议是否能够有效地推广全球可持续性措施?或针对此问题需要另外一个完全不同的系统?

     

    15. Aquaculture, or fish farming, is increasingly providing a major source of food for a growing world population. What forms of aquaculture are most sustainable, and which forms are the least sustainable? Why? Provide specific examples of aquaculture in your analysis.

    农业或水产养殖业为世界不断增加的人口提供了主要的食物来源。什么形式的农业模式是最可持续的,哪些形式是最不可持续的?为什么?请你结合用具体案例和分析进行回答。

     

    16. Can sustainable practices be successfully incorporated into current business models? If not, what might need to change in order to create a better fit?

    可持续发展做法能否成功纳入现有的商业模式?如果不行,需要如何进行调整来实现更好的融合呢?

  • Edoardo Gallo

    行为经济学

    我们的心理如何影响我们每天做出的决定,并最终影响经济?Gallo教授的课程探讨了我们的大脑在做出选择时经常使用方法或经验法则,以及在某些情况下,它们是如何自动产生适得其反的结果,导致我们在做出决定时产生偏见的。学生将成为现场实验的参与者,学习社会科学家如何利用实验来研究人们的行为。【Gallo教授曾在哈佛大学和牛津大学任教,目前在剑桥大学教授行为经济学等课程。】

     

     

    1. What behavioral principles should be used to design a pension scheme?

    哪些行为原则能用于设计养老金计划?

     

    2. What type of policies mitigate the bad consequences of unemployment?

    哪些政策能减缓失业的负面影响?

     

    3. Design an insurance policy that is going to attract consumers by exploiting psychological biases.

    设计一个能利用心理偏见来吸引消费者的保险政策。

     

    4. Humans are prone to errors when making decisions under uncertainty. How can modern technology reduce these errors?

    在不确定情况下,人们常常决策失误。现代科技能减少失误吗?

     

    5. Pollution is a problem affecting most large metropolitan areas. How may insights from psychology inform urban policy to decrease pollution?

    环境污染问题影响了大部分城市。心理学上的发现如何影响城市规划政策,以减少污染?

     

    6. Top students from disadvantaged backgrounds often do not apply to the best universities. What are the potential reasons and what kind of actions can be taken to change this?

    来自弱势背景的顶尖学生往往申请不到最好的学校,其可能原因是什么?如何改变这种现象?

     

    7. Doctors routinely make recommendations that may have life/death implications for their patients. How can biases in decision-making affect their advice?

    医生定期给病人们提出生死攸关的建议。决策中的偏见将如何影响他们的建议?

     

    8. How can we increase the rate at which individuals recycle?

    我们如何提高个人循环利用资源的比例?

     

    9. Describe how psychological biases may affect judicial decisions and propose policy changes to minimize their negative impact.

    描述心理偏见如何影响司法判决,并提出政策改变以减少其负面影响。

     

    10. Delays in paying income tax lead to significant financial losses from governments. What design changes could be made to tax collection policy to minimize these delays?

    延迟缴纳所得税会导致政府大量的财政损失。为减少这些延误,可以对税收征收政策进行哪些设计变更?

     

    11. Buying a house is an infrequent transaction with large financial consequences. In what ways can a prospective house buyer or seller avoid mistakes due to psychological biases?

    买房子是一种不频繁的交易,会带来巨大的经济影响。潜在的购房者或卖家在哪些方面可以避免因心理偏差而犯的错误?

     

    12. A new type of fertilizer has been invented that increases crop yields by 300%. Nevertheless, farmers are not adopting it. What could be the reasons and what policies can be implemented to increase takeup?

    有一种新化肥能使农作物增产三倍,但农民拒绝使用。这有哪些可能原因?有什么政策可以使新化肥得到普及?

     

    13. A major supermarket chain has hired you as a consultant to apply behavioral principles to improve their sales. Write a report with your recommendations.

    一家大型连锁超市聘请你作为顾问,运用行为原则来改善他们的销售。用你的建议写一份报告。

     

    14. You are a financial advisor for a wealthy individual. Come up with an investment strategy that avoids pitfalls from biases in decision making.

    设想你是一个富人的财务顾问。制定一个投资策略,避免在决策过程中出现失误。

     

    15. Develop an idea for a phone app that uses insights from behavioral economics to improve an individual's health.

    设计开发一个手机应用程序,利用行为经济学的观点来改善个人健康。

     

     

  • David Rezvani

    国际关系学

    战争与和平的起因是什么?Rezvani教授的课程围绕国际关系的理论、模式和框架,批判性地审视了围绕当前现象的争议,如全球治理、国家失败、国际不公正和大国竞争。【Rezvani教授曾在哈佛大学、麻省理工学院和牛津大学任教。

     

     

    1. What is the greatest challenge to China's "One Belt, One Road" project and how can it be overcome?

    中国“一带一路”项目的最大挑战是什么?如何克服?

     

    2. Should other countries be happy or worried about the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)?

    各国应该欢迎还是担心亚洲基础设施投资银行?

     

    3. Unlike the countries of Europe, why is there no East Asian Union?

    东亚各国为什么没有像欧洲国家那样形成一个类似欧盟的“东亚盟”?

     

    4. What were the most effective governmental responses to the East Asian financial crisis?

    政府如何最有效地应对东亚经济危机?

     

    5. What is the best type of free trade agreement for Asia?

    最适合亚洲的自由贸易协定是什么样的?

     

    6. Should Catalonia become independent from Spain?

    加泰罗尼亚应该从西班牙中独立出来吗?

     

    7. In light of the US financial crisis in Puerto Rico, what is the best status option for the territory?

    波多黎各如何应对美国经济危机?

     

    8. Is it good or bad for countries (like the United Kingdom) to be a part of the European Union?

    成为欧盟一员对于一些国家(比如英国)来说是好是坏?

     

    9. What political outcome has the best chance at resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?

    什么样的政治结果能够最有效地解决巴以冲突?

     

    10. In light of the massive flow of refugees from places like the Middle East to Europe, is international migration bad for host countries?

    鉴于大量难民从中东等地区涌入欧洲,国际移民对东道国来说是不利的吗?

     

    11. Should the international community prohibit Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons?

    国际社会是否应该阻止伊朗获得核武器?

     

    12. Is global poverty better reduced through free trade or international aid?

    全球贫困状况是通过自由贸易还是国际援助能得到更好的改善?

     

    13. Does humanitarian disaster justify military intervention?

    人道主义灾难是否证明军事干预是正当行为?

     

    14. Is the balance of power still relevant in modern international politics?

    权力平衡的概念始终和现代国际政治相关吗?

     

    15. What should countries do to reduce problems from weak and failed states?

    各个国家应该怎么样做才能帮助减少弱国出现的一些问题?

     

    16. Was it a right choice for America and its allies to have invaded Libya?

    入侵利比亚对于美国及其盟国而言是正确的选择吗?

     

    17. What role should countries play in their policy toward Syria?

    各国在针对叙利亚的政策上应扮演什么样的角色/发挥什么样的作用?

     

    18. What policy should America adopt toward ISIS?

    针对ISIS(伊斯兰国),美国应采取什么样的政策?

     

    19. What strategy should the US adopt for managing its relations with Russia?

    美国在处理和俄国的关系上应该采取怎样的策略?

     

     

  • Parsa Akbari

    计算机科学、生物技术

    关于各种疾病及其可能的遗传联系的数据从未如此之多。与此同时,新的机器学习工具和数据科学技术使研究人员能够识别基因和疾病之间的模式和联系。本课程我们将首先回顾数据分析和机器学习的关键概念。之后学生们可以研究基因与心血管疾病、自闭症、心脏病、过敏或自身免疫性疾病之间的联系。

     

     

    1. Applications of predictive machine learning models to learn more about the human genome and understand mechanisms of cardiovascular disease, autism, heart disease, allergies or autoimmune disease.

    应用预想的机器学习模型来学习更多关于人类基因组的知识,并了解心血管疾病、自闭症、心脏病、过敏或自身免疫性疾病的机制。

     

    2. Unsupervised machine learning to study the genetics of the blood system.

    无监督机器学习研究血液系统的遗传学。

     

    3. A review of supervised and unsupervised Machine Learning models.

    针对监督和非监督机器学习模型的研究。

     

    4. Predicting epigenetic modifications with deep learning to help understand biology of disease.

    通过深度学习表观遗传修饰,以预测和帮助理解疾病生物学。

     

    5. Using deep learning to predict alternative splicing - a mechanism for RNA expression.

    利用深度学习预测选择性剪接——RNA表达的机制。

     

    6. Is the drug industry going bust? A review of the scientific literature and economic data.

    制药行业要破产了吗? 针对科学文献和经济数据的研究。

     

    7. A review into the role of data analysis in drug discovery.

    研究数据分析在药物发现领域的作用。

  • Erika Alden DeBenedictis

    生物技术

    生命是如何起源的?人类生命的基础是什么?科学家如何学会操纵我们的遗传密码?CRISPR如何被用来控制基因表达和人类发展?在DeBenedictis女士的课程中,我们将根据她在麻省理工学院生物工程课程中教授的部分内容来研究这些问题。

     

     

    1. How did life originate? How did the divide between genetic material (DNA) and functional biomolecules (proteins) come to exist? How did the genetic code come to exist?

    生命是如何起源的?遗传物质(DNA)和功能生物分子(蛋白质)是如何区分的?遗传密码是如何产生的?

     

    2. Why is the universally conserved genetic code structured the way it is? In particular, why does it use three-base codons, why are the codons assigned to specific amino acids, why do some amino acids have more codons, and why were the specific 20 amino acids chosen?

    为什么普遍存有的遗传密码构成是这样的?尤其是为什么它使用三碱基密码子?为什么密码子被分配给特定的氨基酸?为什么某些氨基酸有更多的密码子?为什么是这特定的20种氨基酸?

     

    3. On a molecular level, what components in living organisms are used to implement the specific genetic code that exists? How can we modify these components to create new genetic codes? What benefits would different genetic codes have for engineering purposes?

    在分子水平上,生物体中哪些成分被用来实现特定的遗传密码?我们如何修改这些成分来产生新的遗传密码?不同的基因编码对工程有什么好处?

     

    4. If we want to add a new amino acid to the genetic code, or rearrange which codon encodes which amino acid, what engineering approaches are available to us? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches?

    如果我们想在遗传密码中添加一个新的氨基酸,或者重新排列哪个密码子编码哪个氨基酸,我们有什么工程方法?这些不同方法的优缺点是什么?

     

    5. When our engineering goals require biomolecules with novel functionality, we can attempt to create these new components with rational or computational design approaches, with directed evolution, or both. How do these protein engineering techniques work? How do we assess which approach is likely to be successful in a particular situation?

    当我们的工程目标需要具有新功能的生物分子时,我们可以尝试用理性或计算的设计方法实现定向进化,或两者兼而有之来创造这些新成分。这些蛋白质工程技术是如何工作的?我们如何评估在特定情况下哪种方法可能成功?

     

    6. What can directed evolution experiments teach us about how evolution works? Conversely, can evolution research of organisms in the wild guide best practices for directed evolution experiments in the laboratory?

    定向进化实验可以教给我们什么有关进化的原理?相反,在野外对生物体的进化研究能否指导实验室进行定向进化实验的最佳实践?

     

    7. What inspiration can we take from computer science that may help us engineer biological systems? Do concepts like logic gates and abstraction exist in biology, and if not, how do we implement them?

    我们能从计算机科学中获得什么来帮助我们设计生物系统?像逻辑门和抽象这样的概念在生物学中存在吗?如果不存在,我们如何实现它们?

     

    8. Proteins are chemically complex, enabling proteins to perform diverse chemical functions in the cell, but be difficult to engineer and model. In contrast, DNA less chemically complex. How can we exploit the simplicity of DNA’s chemical structure to predict the shape that a strand of DNA will adopt? How do we use this predictive capability to engineer custom DNA shapes (like smiley faces), or processes (like an AND logic gate)? What are the limits of DNA nanotechnology?

    蛋白质具有复杂的化学结构使蛋白质在细胞中发挥不同的化学功能,但很难进行工程设计和建模。相比之下,DNA的化学复杂性较低。我们如何利用DNA化学结构的简单性来预测DNA链的形状?我们如何使用这种预测能力来设计定制的DNA形状(如笑脸),或处理(如“与”逻辑门)?DNA纳米技术的极限是什么?

     

    9. How do CRISPR systems work on the molecular level? What was their original purpose? How did they evolve?

    CRISPR系统是如何在分子水平上工作的?它们最初的目的是什么?它们是如何进化的?

     

    10. Why are CRISPR systems useful for modern genome engineering? How do they compare to other techniques such as zinc fingers?

    为什么CRISPR系统对现代基因组工程起作用?它们与锌指等其他技术相比如何?

     

    11. CRISPR-based techniques rely on protein such as Cas12 or Cas9. Are some of the properties of these proteins undesirable? How might we engineer these proteins to work better?

    基于CRISPR的技术依赖于蛋白质,如Cas12或Cas9。 这些蛋白质的某些特性是否并不为人类所用? 我们如何改造这些蛋白质使其发挥更好的作用?

     

    12. What are recent developments in the field of CRISPR, such as CRISPR-guided base editors and prime editing?

    在CRISPR领域有哪些最新的发展,例如CRISPR导向的基础编辑器和主要编辑?

     

    13. How can CRISPR systems be used to modify the genomes of entire wild populations using ‘gene drive’ constructs? What are possible applications of gene drives? What are the technical challenges to implementing gene drives safely? What are the ethical implications of using gene drives?

    CRISPR系统如何使用“基因驱动”构建体改善整个野生种群的基因组?基因驱动可能有哪些应用?安全实施基因驱动技术面临哪些技术挑战?使用基因驱动的伦理意义是什么?

     

    14. Large-scale engineering projects require project management strategies. In biological engineering, what are good strategies for assessing the quality and feasibility of an idea? How should one go about rapidly de-risking and implementing a new engineering approach?

    大型工程项目需要项目管理策略。在生物工程中,有什么好的策略来评估一个想法的质量和可行性?人们应该如何迅速降低风险并实施一种新的工程方法?

  • César Cabezas Gamarra

    哲学

    什么证明了国家的权威?一个公正的社会应该保障哪些基本自由?社会应该如何看待隐性偏见、历史不公正以及种族主义、阶级主义和性别歧视的结构?精英制度能否与根深蒂固的特权并存?在Cabezas先生的课程中,我们将根据他在哥伦比亚大学的当代文明(CC)课程中教授的部分内容来研究这些问题。

     

     

    1. What justifies the authority of the state? What are the problems associated with social life in the absence of government (i.e. a state of nature)? How does the "social contract" proposed by the likes of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau work as a solution to these problems?

    是什么让一个国家的权威受到认可?在无政府的状态下(自然状态下)哪些问题与社会生活有关联?Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau 等人所提出的社会契约论是如何解决这些问题的?

     

     

    2. What are the supreme principles (if any) that should guide our moral conduct? Do they admit of exceptions?

    指导我们道德行为的最高准则有哪些?这些道德准则是否允许例外情况?

     

     

    3. What is implicit bias? Should we blame agents for having implicit biases even if they are outside their control?

    什么是隐形偏见? 我们是否应该指责代理人存在隐形偏见,即便是这些偏见不在他们控制范围之内。

     

     

    4. Can we explain the various aspects of social reality purely in terms of individual beliefs, actions and intentions? Or does an adequate explanation of social reality require reference to social phenomena such as organizations, social structures and social laws?

    我们能否单纯根据个人信仰,行为和意图来解释社会现实的各个方面?假如想要对社会现实做出充分解释,是否需要参考组织,社会结构和社会法等社会现象?

     

     

    5. Is morality merely a matter of personal (or group) opinion? Or are there objective moral facts that transcend cultures and historical eras?

    道德是否仅仅是与个人(或群体)意见有关?是否有超越文化和历史时代的客观道德事实?

     

     

    6. What are the basic liberties that a just society should secure? Is being free not having others interfere with one's personal affairs? Or is it to have the capacity to make one's own laws by participating in the collective process of government? Or is freedom a matter of not being subject to the arbitrary power of the state and/or other subjects?

    在一个公正的社会里,哪些基本自由权应该得到保障?是没有人会干涉其他人的私人事务?或者是否有能力通过参与政府集体事务来制定自己的法律?或者自由是不受国家和/或其他主体的任意权力影响的问题?

     

     

    7. What is the role of privileges or unearned advantages in sustaining systems of oppression?

    对于特权或那些还未获得的独有优势,在保持压迫性的社会系统的作用是什么?

     

     

    8. What are our moral duties regarding injustices in which we participate indirectly (e.g. buying clothes produced in sweatshops)?

    我们对于间接参与部分不公正的行为(比如购买血汗工厂生产的衣服)的道德责任是什么?

     

     

    9. Are we morally responsible for the moral failures of our ancestors (e.g. colonization, slavery, the Holocaust)? What about the present-day consequences of their moral failures?

    我们是否应该从道义上对我们祖先的失败负责(例如殖民,奴役,大屠杀)?这些失败对我们当今社会带来了什么结果?

     

     

    10. What are some convincing argument for the right to reparations for African-Americans?

    对非洲裔美国人的赔偿权这一问题,是否有令人信服的论据?

     

     

    11. Why are epistemic virtues such as humility, open-mindedness, and curiosity important for our life in community?

    为什么一些美德比如谦虚,开放以及好奇对于我们的生活很重要?

     

     

    12. What is the importance of public deliberation and disagreement for a democratic society?

    公众审议以及分歧,对一个民主社会的重要性是什么?


     

    13. Can people be willfully ignorant? If so, how does willful ignorance contribute to the maintenance of social injustice?

    人们会有意表现无知嘛?如果是这样的话,有意的无知如何维护社会不公问题?

     

     

    14. Given that science has ruled out the existence of biological races, should we give up the concept of race? Or is there a plausible non-biological concept of race that can contribute to a better understanding of racial relations?

    考虑到科学家已经排除了生物种族的存在,我们是否应该抛弃种族的概念?是否有一种看似合理的非生物种族概念可以帮我们更好理解种族关系?

     

     

    15. What is the difference between race, ethnicity and nationality?

    种族,民族,国籍之间的区别是什么?

     

     

    16. Is racism a matter of individual beliefs, intentions and actions, or can racism also take place at the level of institutions and social structures?

    种族主义是否只与个人信仰、意图以及行为有关;还是说种族主义也存在于制度和社会结构层面。

     

     

    17. What is intersectionality? How does it contribute to a better understanding of gender, race and class?

    交叉性是什么?交叉性如何帮助人们更好理解性别,种族以及社会阶层?

     

     

  • Alasdair Craig

    认知科学

    什么是“思想”?我们的思想是如何与世界相连的?本课程利用哲学和认知科学来研究心灵和认知的本质,特别侧重于感知和思维。学生根据自己的兴趣可以专注于解读科学实验,也可以专注于思考所引发的哲学问题。本课程是Craig先生在牛津大学教授的一门课程的改编版本。

     

     

    1. Perceptual Experience 1: What do perceptual illusions and hallucinations reveal about the nature of perceptual experience? In particular, do these phenomena show that we never ‘directly’ see the world as it is?

    感性体验1:感性幻觉和幻觉所揭示的感性的本质是什么?这些现象是否表明我们从未“直接”看这个世界。

     

     

    2. Perceptual Experience 2: Can a person’s perceptual experiences be influenced by that person’s prior beliefs, expectations and desires? What is the best interpretation of experiments that purport to show that the answer to this question is ‘yes’?

    感性体验2:一个人的感性体验是否会受其曾经的信仰,经历或者愿望所影响?怎样对实验进行解读才能表明该问题的答案是肯定的?

     

     

    3. Explanation in Cognitive Science: What should cognitive scientists look for in a satisfying explanation of human behaviour?

    认知科学中的解释:认知科学家们要在人类行为的解释中寻找什么答案?

     

     

    4. The Nature of Mind: Is the mind a purely physical or material thing? Are mental states physical states?

    意识的本质:意识是否是一个纯粹的物理事物?精神状态是否是一种物理状态?

     

     

    5. The ‘Language of Thought’ Hypothesis: What is the language of thought hypothesis, and is it possible to understand mental processes as computational processes without a language of thought?

    “思维语言”假设:思维假设的语言是什么?是否可以将心理过程理解为一种没有思维语言的计算过程?

     

     

    6. The Nature of Consciousness: Describe Ned Block’s distinction between ‘phenomenal consciousness’ and ‘access consciousness’. Does scientific work show that phenomenal consciousness can exist in the absence of access consciousness?

    意识的本质:请描述Ned Block对于现象意识和访问意识的区别。科学报告中是否表明在没有访问意识的情况下可以与现象意识共存?

     

     

    7. Delusions: To understand what is going on when people suffer from delusions, must we postulate abnormalities in how beliefs are formed and maintained, or does it suffice to appeal to abnormalities in perception or experience?

    妄想:为了了解人们在受妄想困扰时到底经历了什么,是否我们必须探明信仰是如何形成并维持的或者是否足以感知或者经历中的一些异常行为?

     

     

    8. Modularity: What is the modularity thesis? Assess the scientific case for the thesis that the mind is modular.

    模块化:什么是模块化论文?评估那些认为意识是模块化的科学案例。

     

     

  • 学者课题举例

    视界学者研究论文摘录

  • Esme | 2017秋季

    南沙英东美式中学 11级

     

    Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), You are Welcomed

    "There are three main reasons why regional members should actively support the creation and operation of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). Firstly, infrastructure construction is crucial to economic growth in most developing countries; secondly, alleviating Asia’s huge infrastructure gap requires mobilizing a variety of public and private sources of financing, as well as engaging with new sources of long-term development which supranational projects like the AIIB can provide; and thirdly, in the AIIB, developing member countries wield more power than they do in other international organizations such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank."

    Cindy | 2017年夏季

    哈尔滨市第三中学,被乔治城大学录取

     

    Economic Growth and Democratization: The Case of South Korea

    This paper will test the relationship, if any, between economic development and democratization through the case of South Korea’s transition from authoritarian rule to democracy. South Korea is a recent example of a country that experienced miraculous economic development followed by a period of democratization. There are many intriguing questions that need to be looked at within this case. For instance, what kind of relationship exists between economic development and democratization in South Korea? Which major theories in political economy come closest to the case of South Korea? Is economic development the only factor in the process of democratization, or do other factors matter as well?

  • 视界学者评估方法

    Horizon视界学术研究项目不以学者的学术成果作为评价的唯一标准,而是采用综合评估体系,综合考量学者的动机和勤奋程度(课堂出勤率),修改提升论文质量的意愿和能力,以及最终学术成果评估。

    Horizon,学术研究项目,哈佛,剑桥,达特茅斯学院,名校教授,推荐信,学术写作,写作能力,英语写作,英文论文,大学论文,发表,学术能力,学术研究,研究经历,课题,行为经济学,经济学,环境工程学,国际关系学,计算机科学,生物技术,哲学,一对一授课,在线,线上学习,奖学金,定制课程,实验